Eritrea References

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Abbebe Kifleyesus. 2007. Folk-fairs and Festivals. Cultural Conservation and National Identity Formation in Eritrea. Cahiers d'Etudes africaines 186:249-276.

Abdulkader Saleh, Nicole Hirt, Wolbert Smidt, and Rainer Tetzlaff, eds. 2008. Friedensräume in Eritrea und Tigray unter Druck, Identitätskonstruktion, soziale Kohäsion und politische Stabilität. Münster: Lit-Verlag.

Al-Ali, Nadje, Richard Black, and Khalid Koser. 2001. The limits to "transnationalism" : Bosnian and Eritrean refugees in Europe as emerging transnational communities. Ethnic and racial studies 24 (4):578-600.

Alemseged Abbay. 1998. Identity jilted, or, Re-imagining identity? : the divergent paths of the Eritrean and Tigrayan nationalist struggles. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press.

Amanuel Mehreteab. 1995. Demobilization and Reintegration of EPLF Fighters into Civil Life with Special Reference to the Role of "Militias" and the Situation in the Field of Education and Skill Training. In Staat und Gesellschaft in Afrika, edited by Peter Meyns. Münster: LIT, 291-302.

———. 2002. Veteran combatants do not fade away: a comparative study on two demobilization and reintegration exercises in Eritrea Vol. 23. Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion.

Amnesty International. 2004. Thousands of people held at Adi Abeto army prison: International Amnesty, 2.

———. 2005. Hundreds of relatives of military conscription evaders and deserters: International Amnesty, 2.

———. 2006. Eritrea: Over 500 parents of conscripts arrested: Amnesty International, 2.

———. 2008. Eritrea - Amnesty International Report 2008. Human Right in State of Eritrea.

Andebrhan Weldegiorgis. 2010. Nation Building, State Construction and Development in Africa: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Arnone, Anna. 2008. Journeys to Exile: The Constitution of Eritrean Identity Through Narratives and Experiences. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 344 (2):325-340.

———. 2010. Being Eritrean in Milan. The Constitution of Identity, Social Anthropology and Migration Studies, University of Sussex.

Asia Abdulkadir. 2008. Die Perzeption von Gewalt im Geschlechterverhältnis in Eritrea. Eine Untersuchung über die Gewalterfahrung weiblicher Rekrutinnen. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač.

Awet Weldemichael. 2009. The Eritrean Long March: The Strategic Withdrawal of the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), 1978–1979. The Journal of Military History 73 (4):1231-1271.

———. 2010. Grand Strategies of Liberation in Eritrea and East Timor. Africa: the Italian Journal of African and Oriental Studies LXV (1-2):40-57.

Bereketeab, Redie. 2009. Conceptualizing Civil Society in Africa: The Case of Eritrea. Journal of Civil Society 5 (1):35– 59.

Bernal, Victoria. 2001. From Warriors to Wives: Contradictions of Liberation and Development in Eritrea. Northeast African Studies 8 (3):129-154.

———. 2004. Eritrea Goes Global: Reflections on Nationalism in a Transnational Era. Cultural Anthropology 19 (1):3-25.

———. 2005. Eritrea on-line: Diaspora, cyberspace, and the public sphere. American Ethnologist 32 (4):660–675.

———. 2006. Diaspora, cyberspace and political imagination: the Eritrean diaspora online. Global Networks 6 (2):161-179.

———. 2013. Please forget democracy and justice: Eritrean politics and the powers of humor. American Ethnologist 40 (2):300-309.

———. 2013. Diaspora, Digital Media, and Death Counts: Eritreans and the Politics of Memorialisation. African Studies:1-19.

Blanc, Guillaume, and Marie Bridonneau. 2014. L'Erythrée. In Dictionnaire géo-historique des migrations internationales, edited by Gildas Simon. Paris: Armand Colin.

Bozzini, David. 2011. Low-Tech State Surveillance: The Production of Uncertainty among Conscripts in Eritrea. Surveillance and Society 9 (1/2):93-113.

———. 2011. En état de siège. Ethnographie de la mobilisation nationale et de la surveillance en Érythrée. thèse de doctorat en anthropologie, Institut d'ethnologie, Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel.

Bozzini, David, and Roberta Deambrosi. 2010. Asmara ou les logiques de la contrainte. Pount. Cahiers d’études Corne de l’Afrique – Arabie du Sud 4:53-69.

Brion, Vincent. 2005. La commémoration des martyrs en Erythrée. Création d'un culte national de l'Erythrée indépendante (1991-2005). Paris: Mémoire de Master Paris 1.

———. 2006. La commémoration des martyrs d'Erythrée. Chroniques yéménites 13.

Brown, M. D. 1999. Emergency Medicine in Eritrea: Rebuilding after a 30-year War of Independence. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 17 (4):412–413.

Bundegaard, Christian. 2004. The Battalion State. Securitization and Nation-Building in Eritrea. Vol. 2/94. Geneva: Programme for Strategic and International Studies.

Cayla-Vardhan, Fabienne. 2000. Les enjeux de l'historiographie érythréenne. Edited by Didier Morin. Vol. 66-67. Bordeaux: Centre d'étude d'Afrique Noire.

Chefena Hailemariam. 2002. Language and Education in Eritrea. A Case Study of Language Diversity, Policy and Practice. Amsterdam: Aksant.

Connell, Dan. 1993. Against all odds : a chronicle of the Eritrean revolution : with a new foreword on the postwar transition. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press.

———. 1995. Eritrea: starting from scratch. Review of African Political Economy 22 (66):587-592.

———. 1997. New challenges in Post-war Eritrea. Eritrean Studies Review 1 (2):129-159.

———. 2000. The importance of Self-reliance: NGO's and Democracy-building in Eritrea. Middle East Report (Spring):28-32.

———. 2002. Rethinking Revolution: New strategies for Democracy and Social Justice. New Jersey: Red Sea Press.

———. 2003a. Enough! A Critique of Eritrea's Post-Liberation Politics. In Taking on the Superpowers. Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1976-1982). Vol.1, edited by Dan Connell. Trenton, N.J.: Red Sea Press.

———. 2003b. Taking on the Superpowers. Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1976-1982). Vol.1. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.

———. 2004. Building a New Nation. Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1983-2002) Vol.2. Vol. 2. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.

———. 2005. Conversations with Eritrean Political Prisoners. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.

———. 2005. Redeeming the failed promise of democracy in Eritrea. Race & Class 46 (4):68-89.

———. 2011. From resistance to governance: Eritrea's trouble with transition. Review of African Political Economy 38 (129):419-433.

———. 2013. Refugees, Ransoms and Revolt. An update on Eritrea. Middle East Report 266:34-39.

Connell, Dan, and Tom Killion. 2011. Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

Conrad, Bettina. 2005. "We are the Prisoners of Our Dreams": Exit, Voice, and Loyalty in the Eritrean Diaspora in Germany. Eritrean Studies Review 4 (2):211-257.

———. 2006. "A culture of War and a Culture of Exile" Yound Eritreans in Germany and their Relations to Eritrea. Reviue européenne des migrations internationale 22 (1):59-85.

David, Robert G. 2004. Eritrean Voices: Indigenous Views on the Development of the Curriculum Ten Years after Independence. International Journal of Educational Development 24 (4):437–450.

Debessay, Hedru. 2003. Eritrea: Transition to Dictatorship, 1991-2003. Review of African Political Economy 30 (97):435-444.

Desalegn Abraha. 2010. Leadership Crises and Nation Building in a Politically Turbulent Environment: The Case of the so Called Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) Central Office in Eritrea. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics 8 (1):108-123.

Dias, Alexandra. 2007. War and State formation: Outcomes of an interstate war in the post- Cold War era: Ethiopia and Eritrea (1998-2000). In AEGIS. 2nd European Conference on African Studies. Leiden, 57.

Dorman, Sara Rich. 2003. Eritrea's Nation and State-building: Re-assessing the impact of "the struggle". QEH Working Paper Series (105):19p.

———. 2003. Youth, the State, and Politics in Post-Liberation Eritrea. Paper read at African Studies Seminar, at University of Edinburg.

———. 2005. Narratives of nationalism in Eritrea: research and revisionism. Nations and Nationalism 11 (2):203-222.

———. 2005. Past the Kalashnikov: Youth, politics and the state in Eritrea. In Vanguard or Vandals, edited by John Abbink and Ineke van Kessel. London, Boston: Brill, 189-204.

EPLF. 1973. Our Struggle and its Goals. Liberation (March):5-23.

———. 1978. Memorandum: EPLF.

EPLF/PFDJ. 1994. National Charter. Nakfa: Government of Eritrea.

Favali, Lyda, and Roy Pateman. 2003. Blood, land and sex. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Gaim Kibreab. 1987. Refugees and Development in Africa. The case of Eritrea. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.

———. 2008. Critical Reflections on the Eritrean War of Independance. Socail Capital, Associational Life, Religion, Ethnicity and Sowing Seeds of Dictatorship. Trenton, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.

———. 2009. Forced labour in Eritrea. Journal of modern african studies 47 (1):41-72.

———. 2009. Eritrea. A dream Deferred. Suffolk: James Currey.

Gilkes, Patrick. 1991. Eritrea: Historiography and Mythology. African Affairs 90 (361):623-628.

———. 2003. National Identity and Historical Mythology in Eritrea and Somaliland. Northeast African Studies 10 (3):163-187.

Glatthard, Fabienne. 2012. Angst vor Überwachung in der eritreischen Diaspora der Schweiz. Arbeitsblatt des Instituts für Sozialanthropologie der Universität Bern 57:141.

Gordon, Charlie. 2010. Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report’s Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea. International Journal of Educational Development 30 (4):388–395.

Groupe Dictionnaire Tigrigna -, Genève. 1990. Dictionnaire Tigrigna-Français / Français-Tigrigna (Erythrée). Paris: L'Harmattan.

Guindeuil, Thomas. 2011. Un espace d’échanges gastronomiques entre mer Rouge et royaume d’Éthiopie (XIVe-XVIe siècle) Hypothèses:303-319.

Habecker, Shelly. 2012. Not black, but Habasha: Ethiopian and Eritrean immigrants in American society. Ethnic and racial studies 35 (7):1200-1219.

Habtom GebreMichael Kibreab, and Pieter Ruys. 2007. Traditional Risk-sharing Arrangements and Informal Social Insurance in Eritrea. Health Policy 80 (1):218–235.

Hale, Sondra. 2001. The State of the Women's Movement in Eritrea. Northeast African Studies 8 (3):155-178.

Hepner, Tricia M. Redecker. 2003. Religion, Nationalism, and Transnational Civil Society in the Eritrean Diaspora. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 10:269–293.

———. 2007. Transnational Political and Legal Dimensions of Emergent Eritrean Human Rights Movements. Migration Studies Working Paper Series 36.

Hepner, Tricia M. Redeker. 2008. Transnational governance and the centralization of state power in Eritrea and exile. Ethnic and racial studies 31 (3):476-502.

———. 2009. Soldiers, Martyrs, Traitors, and Exiles. Political Conflict in Eritrea and the Diaspora. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Hepner, Tricia M. Redecker. 2011. Human Tsunamis. In

———. 2012. Militarization, Generational Conflict, and the Eritrean Refugee Crisis. In African Childhoods: Peacebuilding, Education, and Development in the Youngest Continent, edited by Marisa O. Ensor. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 152-175.

———. 2013. Transnational Political and Legal Dimensions of Emergent Eritrean Human Rights Movements. In Worlds of Human Rights: Ambiguities of Rights Claiming in Africa, edited by William Derman, Anne Hellum and Kristen B.  Sandvik. Leiden: Brill, 277-302.

Hermes, N. , R. Lensink, and H. Mehrteab. 2005. Peer Monitoring, Social Ties and Moral Hazard in Group Lending Programs: Evidence from Eritrea. World Development 33 (1):149–169.

Hidru, Zere. 2008. Unparalleled Patriotism. Hidri Magazine (41).

Hirt, Nicole, and Abdulkader Saleh Mohammad. 2013. ‘Dreams don't come true in Eritrea’: anomie and family disintegration due to the structural militarisation of society. The Journal of modern african studies 51 (1):139-168.

Houtart, François. 1981. Social aspects of the Eritrean revolution. Race & Class 22 (3):257-275.

Hoyle, Peggy Ann. 1999. Eritrean National Identity: a case study. North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 24 (2).

Hughes, Howard. 2007. Demobilization in Eritrea after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War of 1998-200, 40.

Human Right Watch. 2009. Service for Life. State repression and Indefinite Conscription in Eritrea. New York: HRW, 95.

Humphris, Rachel. Refugees and the Rashaida: human smuggling and trafficking from Eritrea to Sudan and Egypt. UNHCR: New Issues in Refugee Research 254:25.

Ishag Ali. 1978. We Will Struggle Against The Sabotage Of The Agent Tribalist And Sectarian Elements-enemies Of The People And The Revolution. Eritrean Revolution. ELF Information Bulletin 3 (1):17-18.

Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique. 2002. Nationalism and ethnicity in the horn of Africa : a critique of the ethnic interpretation. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press.

Joshi, P. 2012. A Case of Severe Physical Abuse from Eritrea. Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence 60 ((5, Supplement)).

Kolmodin, Johannes. 1912. Traditions de Tsazzega et Hazzega, textes tigrigna, publiés par Johannes Kolmodin. Roma: C. de Luigi.

Koser, Khalid. 2002. Une diaspora divisée? Tranfers et transformations au sein de la diapora érythréenne. Politique Africaine 85:64-74.

Last, Alex. 2002. Eritrea cracks down on draft dodgers. In BBC news.

Leenco Lata, ed. 2007. The Search for Peace: The Conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Oslo: Fafo.

Locatelli, Francesca. 2003. Colonial Justice, Crime, and Social Stratification in the “Native Quarters” of Colonial Asmara, 1890–1941: Preliminary Insights from the Court Records of the Indigenous Tribunal of Hamasien. Northeast African Studies 10 (3):1001-1115.

Makki, Fouad. 1996. Nationalism, State Formation and the Public Sphere: Eritrea 1991-96. Review of African Political Economy 23 (70):475-497.

Markakis, John. 1995. Eritrea's national charter. Review of African Political Economy 22 (63):126-129.

Mekonnen, Daniel R. In Press. Contested Versions of Collective Memory in Post-Independence Eritrea. African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review.

Mesfin, Araya. 1990. The Eritrean Question: An Alternative Explanation. Journal of modern african studies 28 (1):79-100.

Mesfun, Tesfay. 2006. Life at Risk for More than a Quarter of a Century. Hidri Magazine (24):?

Michael Woldemariam. 2011. Why Rebels Collide: Factionalism and Fragmentation in African Insurgencies, Dpt of Politics, Princeton University.

Miran, Jonathan. 2009. Red Sea Citizens. Bloomington - Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Morah, E, S Mebrathu, and K Sebhatu. 1998. Evaluation of the Orphans Reunification Project in Eritrea. Evaluation and Program Planning 21 (4):437–448.

Müller, Tanja. 2006. Education for Social Change: Girls’ Secondary Schooling in Eritrea. Development and Change 37 (2):353-373.

Müller, Tanja R. 2005. The Making of Elite Women. Revolution and Nation Building in Eritrea. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

———. 2009. Human Ressource Development and the State: Higher Education in Postrevolutionary Eritrea. In Biopolitics, Militarism and Development. Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Tricia Redecker Hepner and David O'Kane. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 53-71.

———. 2012. From rebel governance to state consolidation – Dynamics of loyalty and the securitisation of the state in Eritrea. Geoforum 43:793–803.

Müller, Tanja R. . 2008. Bare life and the developmental state: implications of the militarisation of higher education in Eritrea. The Journal of modern african studies 46 (1):111-131.

———. 2012. Beyond the siege state – tracing hybridity during a recent visit to Eritrea. Review of African Political Economy 39 (133):451-464.

Nadel, Siegfried, F. 1944. Races and Tribes of Eritrea.

O'Kane, David. 2004. Peasent Nationalism in Embadehro: Land and National Identities in an Eritrean Village. Belfast: Queen's University Belfast, 296.

———. 2012. Limits to State-Led Nation-Building? An Eritrean Village Responds Selectively to the Plans of the Eritrean Government. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 12 (2):309-325.

O'Kane, David, and Tricia M. Redeker Hepner, eds. 2009. Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development : Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Berghahn Books.

Pateman, Roy. 1990. The Eritrean War. Armed Forces & Society 17 (1):81-98.

Petros Ogbazghi. 2011. Personal Rule in Africa: The Case of Eritrea. African Studies Quarterly 12 (2):1-25.

Plaut, Martin. 2013. How unstable is the Horn of Africa? Review of African Political Economy 40 (136):321-330.

Pollera, Alberto. 1935. Le populazioni indigene dell'Eritrea. Bologna: L. Cappelli.

Pool, David. 1993. Eritrean independence: the legacy of the Derg and the politics of reconstruction. African Affairs 92:368:pp 389-402.

———. 2001. From guerrillas to government : the Eritrean People's Liberation Front. Oxford: J. Currey ; Athens : Ohio University Press.

Quehl, Hartmut. 2003. Oral history on War. In Hot spot Horn of Africa: between integration and disintegration, edited by Eve-Maria Bruchhaus. München: LIT, 136-147.

Redie Bereketeab. 2004. Dynamics of National Service in Eritrea. News from the Nordic Africa INstitute 2004/ (1):9-11.

———. 2007. When Success Becomes a Liability: Challenges of State Building in Eritrea (1991-2005). African and Asian Studies 6:395-430.

———. 2010. The Politics of Language in Eritrea: Equality of Languages vs. Bilingual Official Language Policy. African and Asian Studies 9 (1-2):149-190.

Reid, Richard. 2003. Old Problems in new conflicts: some observations on Eritrea and its relations with Tigray, from liberation struggle to inter-state war. Africa 73 (3):369-401.

———. 2005. Caught in the headlights of history: Eritrea, the EPLF and the post-war nation-state. Journal of modern african studies 43 (3):467-488.

———. 2006. War and remembrance: orality, literacy and conflict in the Horn. Journal of African Cultural Studies 18 (1):89-103.

———. 2009. The politics of Silence: Interpreting Stasis in Contemporary Eritrea. Review of African Political Economy 36 (120):209-221.

Rena, Ravinder. 2008. Warsai-Yikeaalo Program and its Impact in Post war Eritrea – A Development Perspective. Asian African Journal of Economics and Econometrics 8 (1):99-109.

Riggan, Jennifer. 2009. Avoiding Wastage by Making Soldiers: Technologies of the State and the Imagination of the Educated Nation. In Biopolitics, Militarism and Development. Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Tricia Redecker Hepner and David O'Kane. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 72-91.

Ruth Iyob. 1995. The Eritrean struggle for independence : domination, resistance, nationalism, 1941-1993. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

———. 1997. The Eritrean Experiment: a Cautious Pragmatism? The Journal of modern african studies 35 (4):647-673.

———. 2000. The Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict: diasporic vs. hegemonic states in the Horn of Africa, 1991-2000. Journal of modern african studies 38 (4):659-682.

Samia Tecle. 2012. The paradoxes of State-Led Transnationalism: Capturing Continuity, Change and Rupture in the Eritrean Transnational Social Field, Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto.

Samia Tecle, and Luin Goldring. 2013. From ‘remittance’ to ‘tax’: the shifting meanings and strategies of capture of the Eritrean transnational party-state. African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 6 (2):189-207.

Samia Tecle, and Tricia M. Redecker Hepner. 2013. New Refugees, Development-Forced Displacement, And Transnational Governance In Eritrea And Exile. Urban Anthropology 42 (2-3):377-410.

Schmidt, Peter R. 2010. Postcolonial silencing, Intellectuals, and the State: Views form Eritrea. African Affairs 109 (435):293-313.

Schmitz-Pranghe, Clara. 2010. Modes and Potential of Diaspora Engagement in Eritrea. Diaspeace Working Paper Working paper no3:35.

Simon Weldehaimanot. 2012. Eritrea's Diaspora in Regional Peace and Human Rights. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights 18 (1):177-201.

Smidt, Wolbert. 2003. The St. Chrischona Pilgrim-Mission's Private Archives as a Source for Eritrean History: From a Romantic Quest for 'Ormania' to the Establishment at the Erythraean Coast. Eritrean Studies Journal 2 (1/2):39-58.

———. 2005. Selbstbezeichnungen von Təgrəñña-Sprechern (Ḥabäša, Tägaru, Təgrəñña u.a.). In Studia semitica et Semitohamitica. Festschrift Rainer Voigt, edited by Bogdan Burtea, Josef Tropper and Helen Younansardaroud. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 385-404.

———. 2005. Before Eritrea, Before the Diaspora: Habesha in Exile and on Missions Abroad in the 19th Century. Eritrean Studies Review 4 (2):1-36.

———. 2006. Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century. Chroniques yéménites 13:131-144.

———. 2006. Erythräa – Eritrea, Kurze Entstehungsgeschichte bis zur Ankunft der Deutschen Aksum-Expedition. In In kaiserlichem Auftrag: Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann, edited by Steffen Wenig. Aichwald: Verlag Lindensoft, 42-56.

———. 2006. Tigrinnya: Soziale Kohäsion, Landrecht und lokale Geschichte der Tigrayer in Äthiopien und der Hochland-Eritreer. In In kaiserlichem Auftrag: Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann, edited by Steffen Wenig. Aichwald: Verlag Lindensoft, 63-72.

———. 2006. Die äthiopischen und eritreischen Mittler. In In kaiserlichem Auftrag: Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann, edited by Steffen Wenig. Aichwald: Verlag Lindensoft, 145-157.

———. 2007. Pre-Colonial Exploration: The Sea Captain Rodatz in Massawa and Tigray 1843-48 – the Quest for a Commercial Station at the East African Coast for Hamburg. Journal of Ethiopian Studies XL (1-2):331-352.

———. 2007. Konfliktlinien im äthiopisch-eritreischen Krieg von 1998 bis 2000. In Wegweiser zur Geschichte: Horn von Afrika im Auftrag des Militärgeschichtlichen Forschungsamtes (MGFA), edited by Dieter H. Kollmer and Andreas Mückusch. Paderborn, München, Wien, Zürich: Ferdinand Schöningh, 93-94.

———. 2010. The Tigrinnya-speakers across the Borders: Discourses of Unity & Separation in Ethnohistorical Context. In Borders and Borderlands as Resources in the Horn of Africa, edited by Markus Virgil Höhne and Dereje Feyissa. London: James Currey, 61-84.

———. 2010. Erd-, Baum- und Wassergeister in Tigray und Eritrea - religiöse Konzepte jenseits des Christentums. In Schweifgebiete, Festschrift für Ulrich Braukämper, edited by Alke Dohrmann, Dirk Bustorf and Nicole Poissonnier. Münster: Lit-Verlag, 94-116.

———. 2013. The term Ḥabäsha: An Ancient Ethnonym of the „Abyssinian“ Highlanders. In Multidisciplinary Views on the Horn of Africa, edited by Hatem Elliesie. Köln: Köppe Verlag.

Sorenson, John. 1991. Discourses on Eritrean Nationalism and Identity. Journal of modern african studies 29 (2):301-317.

———. 1992. History and identity in the Horn of Africa. Dialectical anthropology 17:227-252.

———. 1993. Imagining Ethiopia. Struggle for History and Identity in the Horn of Africa. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Sorenson, John, Stephen Leavit, and John Stone. 1986. Interview with Issayas Afeworki, vice-secretary general Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), 19.

Styan, David. 2007. The evolution, uses and abuses of remittances in the Eritrean economy. In Eritrea's economic survival. London: Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs), 9.

Tekeste, Fekadu. 2002. Journey form Nakfa to Nakfa. Asmara: Sabur Printing Service.

Tekeste Negash. 1987. Italian colonialism in Eritrea, 1882-1941 : policies, praxis and impact. Uppsala, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

———. 1997. Eritrea and Ethiopia : the federal experience. Uppsala, New Brunswick: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Transaction Publ.

Tekeste Negash, and Kjetil Tronvoll. 2000. Brothers at war : making sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian war. Oxford etc.: J. Currey etc.

Tekle Woldemikael. 2003. Language, Education, and Public Policy in Eritrea. African studies review 46 (1):117-136.

———. 2009. Pitfalls of Nationalism in Eritrea. In Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development : Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century., edited by David O'Kane and Tricia Redecker Hepner. New-York: Berghahn Books, 1-16.

Tesfai Amanuel. 2008. Aid: The Forerunner for New Colonialism. How Should Developing Nations Fight It? In

The America Team for Freedom, of Eritrea. 2009b. "I must tell the world what is happening there". An Eye Witness from Eritrea.

The America Team for Freedom of Eritrea. 2009a. An eye Witness from Eritrea. Interview 2.

Thiollet, Hélène. 2009. La mobilité dans la Corne de l’Afrique : entre urgence humanitaire et contrainte sécuritaire. Migrations Société 21 (121):75-88.

Treiber, Magnus. 2005. Der Traum vom guten Leben. Die eritreische warsay-Generation im Asmara der zweiten Nachkriegszeit. Münster: LIT-Verlag.

———. 2007. Dreaming of a Good Life - Young Urban Refugees from Eritrea between Refusal of Politics and Political Asylum. In Cultures of Migration, edited by Hans Peter Hahn and Georg Klute. Berlin: LIT, 239-260.

———. 2007. Funktion und Aneignung sozialer Räume unter mittellosen, jungen Erwachsenen in Asmara/Eritrea. In Welt.Raum.Körper. Transformationen und Entgrenzungen von Körper und Raum, edited by Carsten Würmann and Angela Poppitz. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 57-68.

———. 2009. Trapped in Adolescence: The Postwar Urban Generation. In Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development : Eritrea in the Twenty-First Century., edited by David O'Kane and Tricia Redecker Hepner. New-York: Berghahn Books, 92-114.

———. 2010. The choice between clean and dirty. Discourses of Aesthetics, Morality and Progress in Post-revolutionary Asmara, Eritrea. In Urban Pollution. Cultural Meanings, Social Practices, edited by Eveline Dürr and Rivke Jaffe. Oxford: Berghahn, 123-143.

———. 2013. Lessons for Life. Two migratory portraits from Eritrea. In Long Journeys. African Migrants on the Road, edited by Alessandro Triulzi and McKenzie; Robert L. Leiden: Brill, 187-212.

Treiber, Magnus, and Lea Tesfaye. 2008. Step by Step. Migration from Eritrea. In Hot Spot Horn of Africa revisited. Approaches to make sense of conflict, edited by Eva-Maria Bruchhaus and Monika Sommer. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 280-295.

Trevaskis, Gerald K. N. 1975. Eritrea : a colony in transition, 1941-52. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Tronvoll, Kjetil. 1998. Mai Weni, a highland village in Eritrea. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press.

———. 1998. The Process of Nation-Building in Post-War Eritrea: Created from below or Directed from above? The Journal of modern african studies 36 (3):461-482.

———. 1999. Borders of violence - boundaries of identity: demarcating the Eritrean nation-state Ethnic and racial studies. Ethnic and racial studies 22:6:1037-1060.

———. 2000. Meret shehena, 'brothers' land': S.F. Nadel's Land Tenure on the Eritrean Plateau revisited. African Affairs 70:4: pp 595-613.

———. 2004. National Service in Eritrea: A Metaphor of Oppression.

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